The earth’s climate has always changed. But this isn’t a reason to throw up our hands and ignore current warnings about current and future anthropogenic warming. Instead, it gives us a reason to explore what we can learn from humanity’s deep past. How have cultures around the world responded to climate perturbations during the long span of human history? While the magnitude of changes during the Medieval Warm Period andLittle Ice Age were much smaller than what environmental scientists predict for our future, history still offers ways of understanding human agency, adaptability, and resilience that can help us face what may lie ahead.